is the one place where you find help for all types of assignments. [4] The human cause of climate change is not disputed by any scientific body of national or international standing. [182] Various infectious diseases are more easily transmitted in a warmer climate, such as dengue fever, which affects children most severely, and malaria. [238] Hydropower growth has been slowing and is set to decline further due to concerns about social and environmental impacts. World Heritage Ohio’s website refers to them as “the pre-eminent examples, … [8] Additional warming also increases the risk of triggering critical thresholds called tipping points. However, the authors note that "the effects of a single exposure in an artificial setting may represent a lower bound of the real-world effects. [293] The 2016 Kigali Amendment to the Montreal Protocol aims to reduce the emissions of hydrofluorocarbons, a group of powerful greenhouse gases which served as a replacement for banned ozone-depleting gases. When the eruption is sufficiently strong (with sulfur dioxide reaching the stratosphere) sunlight can be partially blocked for a couple of years, with a temperature signal lasting about twice as long. [112] More of the Sun's energy is now absorbed in these regions, contributing to Arctic amplification, which has caused Arctic temperatures to increase at more than twice the rate of the rest of the world. [248] Carbon capture and storage in combination with bio-energy (BECCS) can result in net-negative emissions. [88] This effect also causes droplets to be more uniform in size, which reduces the growth of raindrops and makes clouds more reflective to incoming sunlight. [55] The remainder of the additional energy has melted ice and warmed the continents and the atmosphere. Shown: Texas, USA. In the 1980s, the terms global warming and climate change were introduced, the former referring only to increased surface warming, while the latter describes the full effect of greenhouse gases on the climate. [86] Globally, aerosols have been declining since 1990, meaning that they no longer mask greenhouse gas warming as much. First, CO2 dissolves in the surface water. Climate as a common good. Many arctic animals rely on sea ice, which has been disappearing in a warming Arctic. [299], There is an overwhelming scientific consensus that global surface temperatures have increased in recent decades and that the trend is caused mainly by human-induced emissions of greenhouse gases, with 90%–100% (depending on the exact question, timing and sampling methodology) of publishing climate scientists agreeing. Scholar Assignments are your one stop shop for all your assignment help needs.We include a team of writers who are highly experienced and thoroughly vetted to ensure both their expertise and professional behavior. Climate fiction (sometimes shortened cli-fi) is literature that deals with climate change and global warming. Shown: Texas, USA. The Northern Hemisphere not only has much more land, but also more snow area and sea ice, because of how the land masses are arranged around the Arctic Ocean. [320], Climate protests have risen in popularity in the 2010s in such forms as public demonstrations,[321] fossil fuel divestment, and lawsuits. Climate proxies, sources of climate information from natural archives such as trees and ice cores, show that natural variations offset the early effects of the Industrial Revolution. ", "Environmental Impacts of Renewable Energy Technologies", "The UK Has Declared a Climate Emergency: What Now? [292], The 1987 Montreal Protocol, an international agreement to stop emitting ozone-depleting gases, may have been more effective at curbing greenhouse gas emissions than the Kyoto Protocol specifically designed to do so. [289] The Paris Agreement reiterated that developing countries must be financially supported. After an initial warming due to emissions of greenhouse gases, the atmosphere will hold more water. Natural processes, such as carbon fixation in the soil and photosynthesis, more than offset the greenhouse gas contributions from deforestation. [263], The geopolitics of climate change is complex and has often been framed as a free-rider problem, in which all countries benefit from mitigation done by other countries, but individual countries would lose from investing in a transition to a low-carbon economy themselves. Events like the June 2019 European heat wave are becoming more common. [314] Like the tobacco industry before, the main strategy of these groups has been to manufacture doubt about scientific data and results. [30], Fiction in a setting defined in part by climate crisis, Milner A and Burgmann JR. Cli-Fi Climate Fiction and Climate Change, Monash University. Although its current use is limited in scale and expensive,[247] carbon capture and storage (CCS) may be able to play a significant role in limiting CO2 emissions by mid-century. [288] The agreement replaced the Kyoto Protocol. [329] Other scientists were initially sceptical and believed the greenhouse effect to be saturated so that adding more CO2 would make no difference. The IPCC Weighs In", "Forests in the IPCC Special Report on Land Use: 7 Things to Know", "Yale Researcher Anthony Leiserowitz on Studying, Communicating with American Public", Result of total melting of Polar regions on World, Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), Reducing emissions from deforestation and forest degradation, Illustrative model of greenhouse effect on climate change, Safety of high-energy particle collision experiments, Existential risk from artificial intelligence, Self-Indication Assumption Doomsday argument rebuttal, Self-referencing doomsday argument rebuttal, List of dates predicted for apocalyptic events, List of apocalyptic and post-apocalyptic fiction,, History of climate variability and change, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2020, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from December 2020, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 22 January 2021, at 04:35. Ecological collapse. At the global level, it is a complex system linked to many of the essential conditions for human life. [304], Scientific discussion takes place in journal articles that are peer-reviewed, which scientists subject to assessment every couple of years in the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change reports. Senate. [222] Solar radiation management methods also have been explored as a possible supplement to deep reductions in net emissions. Solar and wind power require energy storage systems and other modifications to the electricity grid to operate effectively,[225] although several storage technologies are now emerging to supplement the traditional use of pumped-storage hydropower. However, SRM would raise significant ethical and legal issues, and its risks of unwanted effects are poorly understood. [183] Young children are the most vulnerable to food shortages, and together with older people, to extreme heat. Storm intensification. Some of this infrared radiation is absorbed by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, and is trapped on Earth instead of escaping into space. [68] While water vapour (~50%) and clouds (~25%) are the biggest contributors to the greenhouse effect, they increase as a function of temperature and are therefore considered feedbacks. They thought climate would be self-regulating. While there is plenty we don’t know about them, they’ve also left behind an impressive legacy in the objects they created and the massive ceremonial earthworks that have endured until the present day. Mild winters allow more pine beetles to survive to kill large swaths of forest. [14] The novel's protagonist, Jimmy, lives in a "world split between corporate compounds", gated communities that have grown into city-states and pleeblands, which are "unsafe, populous and polluted" urban areas where the working classes live. [19], Barbara Kingsolver's novel, Flight Behavior (2012), employs environmental themes and highlights the potential effects of global warming on the monarch butterfly. [99] There has been no upward trend in the amount of the Sun's energy reaching the Earth. Temperature rise on land is about twice the global average increase, leading to desert expansion and more common heat waves and wildfires. [9] Impacts on ecosystems include the relocation or extinction of many species as their environment changes, most immediately in coral reefs, mountains, and the Arctic. [158], The long-term effects of climate change include further ice melt, ocean warming, sea level rise, and ocean acidification. [209], Storm intensification. [95], In addition to affecting greenhouse gas concentrations, land-use changes affect global warming through a variety of other chemical and physical mechanisms. Climate change also increases droughts and heat waves that inhibit plant growth, which makes it uncertain that this carbon sink will persist in the future. [237] Bioenergy is often not carbon neutral, and may have negative consequences for food security. Arctic warming. This framing has been challenged. Climate fiction (sometimes shortened cli-fi) is literature that deals with climate change and global warming. The homestead of any family in the state is exempt from attachment, lien or forced sale, except for taxes or purchase money, provided it has been properly recorded; but it can embrace only one dwelling house, cannot include gold or silver mines, and is limited in value to $5000 to one acre if within a town plat, to 40 acres if it is in the country and was acquired under the laws of the … [160] These emissions are estimated to have prolonged the current interglacial period by at least 100,000 years. 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