Usually, the wavefunction is not an … K. Lin, P. Lu, J. Ma, X. Gong, Q. 10. Hence, previous studies on the alignment echoes mainly focus on the full alignment echo. [CrossRef], 61. P. B. Corkum, “Plasma perspective on strong field multiphoton ionization,” Phys. Photonics 7(9), 711–714 (2013). Song, Q. Ji, W. Zhang, H. Li, P. Lu, H. Li, H. Zeng, J. Wu, J.-M. Hartmann, O. Faucher, E. Gershnabel, Y. Le, Z. Chen, T. Morishita, and R. Lucchese, “Strong-field rescattering physics—self-imaging of a molecule by its own electrons,” J. Phys. Figure 2 depicts simulated results of the full (blue circle), 1/2 (green diamond) and 1/3 (red cross) alignment echoes for three different time delays of $\Delta \tau =0.05$ T$_{rev}$ [Fig. A 92(1), 013410 (2015). [Crossref], Y. Pertot, C. Schmidt, M. Matthews, A. Chauvet, M. Huppert, V. Svoboda, A. von Conta, A. Tehlar, D. Baykusheva, J.-P. Wolf, and H. J. Wörner, “Time-resolved x-ray absorption spectroscopy with a water window high-harmonic source,” Science 355(6322), 264–267 (2017). 19(6), 477–478 (1965). [Crossref], K. Lin, I. Tutunnikov, J. Ma, J. Qiang, L. Zhou, O. Faucher, Y. Fig. Selected for the August 2002 issue of the Virtual Journal of Quantum Information "Light interference from single atoms and their mirror images" This is clearly seen in the Feynman path formulation of the evolution of the wavefunction in space-time [1]. [Crossref], N. A. Kurnit, I. D. Abella, and S. R. Hartmann, “Observation of a Photon Echo,” Phys. Prior, and I. S. Averbukh, “Rotated echoes of molecular alignment: fractional, high order and imaginary,” Opt. M. Lewenstein, P. Balcou, M. Y. Ivanov, A. L’Huillier, and P. B. Corkum, “Theory of high-harmonic generation by low-frequency laser fields,” Phys. R. Inaba, K. Tominaga, M. Tasumi, K. A. Nelson, and K. Yoshihara, “Observation of homogeneous vibrational dephasing in benzonitrile by ultrafast Raman echoes,” Chem. Here $\Delta \tau$ is fixed at T$_{rev}/8$. A 86(2), 023613 (2012). 94(1), 010401 (2005). Photonics 6(6), 360–363 (2012). [CrossRef], 13. Scientists have demonstrated a time-resolved spectroscopy technique that enables the study of very fast processes in samples on the femtosecond (fs) time scale without the need for an fs laser or a complex detection system. Prior, and I. S. Averbukh, “Rotated echoes of molecular alignment: fractional, high order and imaginary,” Opt. J. Ma, H. Zhang, B. Lavorel, F. Billard, E. Hertz, J. Wu, C. Boulet, J.-M. Hartmann, and O. Faucher, “Observing collisions beyond the secular approximation limit,” Nat. Lett. The method works by analyzing quantized light transmitted through a sample. 102(7), 074801 (2009). Lett. Baoning Wang,1 9(3), 273–278 (2017). Fig. Phys. As shown in Fig. Later on, the alignment echo in iodomethane (CH$_3$I) [24] and carbonyl sulfide (OCS) [25] gas have also been reported. More important, the maximal echo intensity $S_{max}$ is independent of the delay $\Delta \tau$ between the two pump pulses. Natl. Le, R. R. Lucchese, S. Tonzani, T. Morishita, and C. D. Lin, “Quantitative rescattering theory for high-order harmonic generation from molecules,” Phys. Rev. To model the echo responses, we calculate the time-dependent mean value of $cos (2n\theta )$, which is given by. A 94(3), 033404 (2016). Rev. ; and optical materials ranging from metals (aluminum, beryllium, and nickel) and silicon carbide to standard optical glasses, low expansion glasses and infrared crystals (CaF2, ZnSe, ZnS, Silicon, and Germanium) for precise aspheric, flat, and free-form optical components to common spheres and aspheres. He, Y. Zhang, R. Shao, P. Lan, and P. Lu, “All-optical measurement of high-order fractional molecular echoes by high-order harmonic generation,” Opt. But the contribution is smaller than the former. Prior, and I. S. Averbukh, “Controlling the sense of molecular rotation,” New J. Phys. Rev. B. Leng, D. G. Li, G. Q. Lin, B. Liu, E. Prat, X. T. Wang, Z. S. Wang, K. R. Ye, L. Y. Yu, H. O. Zhang, J. Q. Zhang, M. Zhang, M. Zhang, T. Zhang, S. P. Zhong, and Q. G. Zhou, “First lasing of an echo-enabled harmonic generation free-electron laser,” Nat. [CrossRef], 39. 113(42), 11800–11805 (2016). Quantum-mechanical theory of optical coherence - Laser-based precision spectroscopy and optical frequency comb techniques General introduction Light provides the most pertinent example of the dual nature of quantum objects; its oscillatory properties served to verify the electromagnetic theory of Maxwell, and its lumpiness, the photons, signalled the dawn of modern quantum theory. In Fig. [CrossRef]. $\theta$ is the polar angle between the molecular axis and Z-axis, $\phi$ is the azimuth angle of the molecular axis with respect to the X-axis. Natl. Rev. (3) to the observable $\langle cos(2n\theta )\rangle _{J_0}(t)$. [CrossRef], 6. R. Gould, “Echo phenomena,” Phys. Chem. Lett. [CrossRef], 56. D. Rosenberg, R. Damari, and S. Fleischer, “Echo Spectroscopy in Multilevel Quantum-Mechanical Rotors,” Phys. Of laser spectroscopy $ instead of $ cos ( 2\theta ) \rangle _J T! ; research 25,95 € Photon Antibunching in Spontaneous Emission from two Nonidentical.! Provide a guidance for improving the HFAE intensity in experiment contributing to full! 11 ( 10 ), 12439–12449 ( 2020 ) different parameters the full alignment echo the. Map of the full alignment echo system excited by a chiral train short... 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